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Samples

We usually use a swab of oral mucosa for DNA analysis. On request, we can also use the following samples for you (subject to surcharge):

Category A (success rate 90% or higher):

  • Bone marrow (fresh – collected within 30 days, no bone marrow in rails or paraffin)
  • Blood on filter paper (also called Whatman, Matrix or Parchment, less than 60 days old)
  • Sperm (frozen in a vial – e.g., from sperm bank, or a fresh smear. Sperm on fabric is listed in B, condom is listed in C)

Category B (success rate 60-90%):

  • Blood spots on fabrics (including bandages, gauze, handkerchiefs, napkins)
  • Fingernails/cut-off fingernails (we need 5-10 pieces)
  • Diabetic test strips (we need 5-6 strips)
  • Tissues from muscles or organs, not embalmed (depends on the age and storage conditions; when the deceased was embalmed, please see Category D)
  • Smear from the ear
  • Miscarried fetus (a reference sample of the mother is needed, success is increased as the age of the fetus increases, only recognition of maternal DNA possible)
  • Sperm stain on fabric (the area on the fabric must be identified, including bandage, gauze, handkerchiefs and napkins; for condoms see C)
  • Umbilical cord (dried, a reference sample of the mother is required)

Category C (success rate 60% or less):

  • Hair with roots (ensure that hair roots are present, 7-10 pieces are needed, dandruff or cut hair does not work)
  • Electric or disposable razor (send the entire blade or disposable razor, pieces can be sent in one envelope)
  • Cigarette butt (depends on type/brand)
  • Chewing gum (sugar-free preferred)
  • Mucus (handkerchief, napkin or paper towel)
  • Condom (depends on storage, swab the inside of the condom)
  • Tissue sample in paraffin (paraffin block or slides)
  • Toothbrush
  • Beverage can/drinking glass/plastic container (take a smear with a cotton swab or send the article to us and precisely identify the area)
  • Tampon/sanitary napkin
  • Straw/drinking straw
  • Letter envelope flap (depends on the age of the envelope and on the seal)
  • Tissues (muscles, organs), embalmed (if the deceased was embalmed, tissues in formalin/formaldehyde are not accepted)

Category D (success rate less than 20%):

  • Bones from an exhumed body (only for forensic cases, please contact Forensic Customer Service in advance)
  • Teeth
  • Bones (thigh bones or humerus bones, 3-4 inches long – use a clean saw)

You can find prices for special samples here.